Featured Articles

  • The Role of the Tumor Microenvironment in Glioblastoma: A Mathematical Model

    We develop a mathematical and computational model to understand the interactions between the tumor cells and microglia that enhance tumor growth. The model includes the densities of tumor and microglia, and the concentrations of growth factors.

  • Aggregation Effects and Population-Based Dynamics as a Source of Therapy Resistance in Cancer

    Aggregation Effects and Population-Based Dynamics as a Source of Therapy Resistance in Cancer

    The authors demonstrate that cancer cells can act like a “herd.” This results in an evolutionary process described as “aggregation effects” in which the interactions among members of a herd. They demonstrate that cancer cells may benefit from clustering together. However, the authors also demonstrate that aggregation effects can be exploited under some conditions to increase the sensitivity of the cancer cells to some therapies.

  • A Biocompatible Near-Infrared 3D Tracking System

    We developed biocompatible near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF) markers and tracked them with a novel 3D and NIR camera tracking system. This allows us to easily differentiate our markers and track them, even when they are occluded by blood or tissue.

  • -Omic and Electronic Health Record Big Data Analytics for Precision Medicine

    Po-Yen Wu, Chih-Wen Cheng, Chanchala D. Kaddi, Janani Venugopalan, Ryan Hoffman, and May D. Wang, Georgia Institute of Technology and Emory University
    Rapid advances of high-throughput technologies and wide adoption of electronic health records (EHRs) have led to fast accumulation of -omic and EHR data. This article presented -omic and EHR data characteristics, associated challenges, and corresponding big data analytics. The two case studies demonstrated how big data analytics enable precision medicine.

  • Channel Modeling of Miniaturized Battery-Powered Capacitive Human Body Communication Systems

    Jiwoong Park, Harinath Garudadri, and Patrick P. Mercier, University of California San Diego, USA
    In this paper, small battery-powered transmitter and receiver devices are implemented to measure path loss under realistic assumptions. A hybrid electrostatic-FEM simulation model is presented that validates measurements and enables rapid and accurate characterization of HBC systems. HBC has a great potential for many emerging wearable applications; accurate path loss estimation will improve system-level design leading to viable products.

  • Apnea-Hypopnea Index Prediction Using Electrocardiogram Acquired During Sleep-Onset Period

    Da Woon Jung, Su Hwan Hwang, Yu Jin Lee, Do-Un Jeong, and Kwang Suk Park, Seoul National University, Korea
    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. We hypothesized that OSA patients’ unresponsive ANS to the alternate stimulation during the sleep-onset period would cause regular respiration cycles. This study has the potential to address the growing need for an effective OSA screening measure.

  • 4-D Flow Control in Porous Scaffolds: Toward a Next Generation of Bioreactors

    4-D Flow Control in Porous Scaffolds: Toward a Next Generation of Bioreactors

    The article presents a novel methodology for spatiotemporal control of mechanical forces in scaffolds that enables generating on demand flow fields in real-time and can adapt to changes in the environment. This was achieved with a multi-inlet bioreactor and a control algorithm with learning capabilities. Non-invasive measurements of the scaffold’s hydrodynamic properties are obtained using nuclear magnetic resonance imaging and provide feedback for real-time control.

  • Optical Detection of Ultrasound in Photoacoustic Imaging

    Optical Detection of Ultrasound in Photoacoustic Imaging

    Photoacoustic (PA) imaging offers unique capabilities in studying biological tissue based on optical absorption contrast. The sensitivity and bandwidth in detecting laser-induced ultrasonic signals are crucial for attaining high-quality and high-resolution PA images. Recent studies have shown that optical detection of ultrasound can provide improved detection angle and sensitivity over significantly extended bandwidth. In this review, we provide an overview of recent technological advances in optical methods of ultrasound detection by classifying them based on their implementations in photoacoustic imaging. We further introduce a theoretical framework to generalize sensitivity, bandwidth, and spatial responses of optical ultrasound detection geometries.

  • Compound Radar Approach for Breast Imaging

    Compound Radar Approach for Breast Imaging

    This paper considers the problem of detecting tumour targets within breast phantoms using multistatic radar. To accurately image small, potentially cancerous targets, a significant number of multistatic channels are required in order to adequately calibrate-out unwanted skin reflections and increase immunity to clutter. However, increasing the density of antennas within an array is inevitably limited by the geometry of the microwave elements designed for biological applications. A novel compound imaging approach is presented to overcome these constraints and improve the imaging performance of a multistatic radar modality. Experimental data is acquired to evaluate the algorithm using constructed phantoms of varying complexity.

  • Epileptogenic Source Imaging Using Cross Frequency Coupled Signals from Scalp EEG

    Epileptogenic Source Imaging Using Cross Frequency Coupled Signals from Scalp EEG

    The epileptogenic zone (EZ) is a brain region responsible for seizure genesis. This study describes a novel EEG source imaging (ESI) method to estimate the EZ which uses cross frequency coupled potential signals (SCFC) derived from scalp EEG. Results were validated using 1) known surgical resections for Engel I-IV patients, and 2) through forward modelling with noise simulation. The SCFC demonstrated significant advantages over “raw” scalp EEG.

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