A Palm-Sized Cryoprobe System with a Built-in Thermocouple and Its Application in an Animal Model of Epilepsy
Catheter Treatment of Ventricular Tachycardia: A Reference-Less Pace-Mapping Method to Identify Ablation Targets
Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is a life-threatening arrhythmia. In patients with myocardial infarction, it is caused by a reentrant circuit, formed by conduction blocks and a slow conducting zone within the infarcted area. Catheter interventions consist of identifying those circuits and breaking them by radiofrequency ablation. Here a novel method is presented for identification of ablation targets. It consists of pacing the heart from various sites of the ventricle. As the catheter is moved, changes of the activation wavefront can be detected by analysis of surface electrocardiograms. Areas of abrupt changes thereby correspond to critical zones likely to sustain VT circuits.
Implantable Multi-modality Probe for Subdural Simultaneous Measurement of Electrophysiology, Hemodynamics, and Temperature Distribution
Multi-channel multi-modality measurement capabilities of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), electrocorticography (ECoG), and temperature distribution were integrated into a single, flexible device compact enough for subdural implantation. Photoelectric bare chips for NIRS channels, miniature temperature-coefficient thermistors for measuring localized temperature variation, and 3-mm-diameter platinum plates for ECoG recording were assembled on a flexible printed circuit to create six channels for each modality. A conformal coating of Parylene-C was applied to make the probe surface biocompatible. The simultaneous measurement capability of the developed probe was examined, with IRB approval, in subjects during surgery and post-operative monitoring with no complications throughout the two-week implantation.
FeetBeat: A Flexible Iontronic Sensing Wearable Detects Pedal Pulses and Muscular Activities
The world-first pedal wearable system, named FeetBeat, has been presented to acquire both vital signals and muscular activities. This system has been seamlessly integrated into a shoe format by constructing a sensitive and flexible pressure sensing array enabled by the iontronic sensing principle. It can capture high-definition peripheral arterial pulse waveforms, from which heart rates and respiratory patterns can be extracted within a medical-standard precision. Meanwhile, the high spatial resolution of the sensing array not only allows alignment-free tracking of pulse signals, while serving as a location reference to identify individual pedal tendon activities, from which various foot gestures can be distinguished.
Improving Performance of Devanagari Script Input-Based P300 Speller Using Deep Learning
Highlights: Classification of P300 using two deep learning algorithms i.e. deep convolution neural network (DCNN) and stacked autoencoder (SAE), customized and fine-tuned for Devanagari Script (DS) based P300 speller; A novel double batch training approach to handle the computational burden; A leaky ReLU activation function is used in DCNN to overcome dying ReLU problem; Improvement in the performance of DS based P300 speller for reduced number of trials; Reduced the time to spell the character from 16 sec to 9.6 sec; Achieved classification accuracy of 88.22% just in three trials.
High-Quality Immunohistochemical Stains through Computational Assay Parameter Optimization
Immunohistochemistry has been an invaluable analytical method in the field of cancer diagnosis. Optimization of assay parameters governing the quality of immunostaining requires of exhaustive exploration of the parameter space, but such optimization is infeasible due to the limited availability of tissue samples. Thus, suboptimal images are being used for diagnoses. This work analyzes immunohistochemistry staining quality through staining quality indicators and proposes an innovative local staining method using the microfluidic probe technology. Consequently, the tissue is processed with parameters that result in improved signal-to-background stains. This methodology will contribute to standardize immunostaining across diagnostic laboratories and to reduce errors in diagnosis.
A Review of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound for Therapeutic Applications
Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a type of ultrasound that delivers at a low intensity and outputs in the mode of pulsed waves. It has minimal thermal effects while maintaining the transmission of acoustic energy to the target tissue, which can provide non-invasive physical stimulation for therapeutic applications. LIPUS has been demonstrated to accelerate the healing of fresh fracture, nonunion and delayed union in both animal and clinical studies. The effectiveness of LIPUS for the applications of soft-tissue regeneration and inhibiting inflammatory responses has also been investigated experimentally. Additionally, research has shown that LIPUS is a promising modality for neuromodulation.