Image-based Artefact Removal in Laser Scanning Microscopy
Advances in laser scanning microscopy (LSM) have greatly extended its applicability in cancer imaging not only to observe dynamic biological processes, but also to quantitatively measure them. The fast acquisition with increased spatial resolution and field of view enables scanning of larger areas of the specimen. However in practice, image quality is compromised by the motion of specimen and the motion of the microscope laser. In this paper, we present a framework for efficient removal of jaggedness artefacts caused by the varying speeds of the laser. Our framework compensates for the local displacements and reduces the level of noise, demonstrating substantial improvement over other state-of-the-art acquisition methods.
An Ankle-Foot Prosthesis Emulator Capable of Modulating Center of Pressure
Difficulty balancing is one of the most commonly reported challenges following lower limb amputation. Active prosthetic limbs could be used to assist with balance by better controlling interactions with the ground. This work describes the design of a prosthesis emulator with two forefoot digits and a heel digit. Independent actuation of these digits modulates the origin and magnitude of the ground reaction force vector. During standing and walking, the emulator was able to control center of pressure along a prescribed pattern with errors of about 10% of pattern length, similar to human control.
Pediatric Airway Stent Designed to Facilitate Mucus Transport and Atraumatic Removal
This work presents a novel airway stent system for treating tracheobronchomalacia in infants and children. The uncovered helical NiTi stent provides radial airway support while allowing ciliary assisted mucus transport. Its helical shape resists migration while also enabling atraumatic removal despite epithelialization using an extraction technique similar to removing a corkscrew from a cork. A mechanics model of stent compression along with tracheal phantom experiments are used to optimize stent design. In-vivo swine experiments demonstrated device safety along with the desired properties of mucus transport, resistance to migration and ease of removal.
Electric Stimulus-Responsive Chitosan/MNP composite Microbeads for a Drug Delivery System
In this work, we explored a novel technique of using electric pulses as stimulus to regulate vancomycin elution profile release from a chitosan-based drug delivery substrate. Inkjet printing technology was used to print silver electrodes on an inexpensive, flexible, thin polyimide substrate. We demonstrated a significantly higher release of vancomycin from the groups that received excitation, compared to groups that did not. Such controllable drug release systems that are responsive to external stimuli will assist healthcare providers in customizing drug administration as dictated by the specific needs of each patient, thus improving overall drug efficacy.
4-D Flow MRI-Based Computational Analysis of Blood Flow in Patient-Specific Aortic Dissection
This study presents a comprehensive computational methodology for the evaluation of hemodynamics in type B aortic dissection. It is based on fully patient-specific boundary conditions obtained from imaging, including computed tomography (CT) images and 4D flow magnetic resonance imaging, and pressure measurement. The paper describes in detail the developed workflow and its validation against pressure and flow measurements acquired in vivo. Having demonstrated a good overall agreement with in vivo data, the model was used to evaluate aortic flow after thoracic endovascular repair (TAVER), showing its potential in predicting post-TEVAR hemodynamics using boundary conditions derived from data acquired before TEVAR.
Real-Time Photoacoustic Thermometry Combined with Clinical Ultrasound Imaging and High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound
Description: High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a non-invasive method for treating diseased tissues by locally delivering thermal and mechanical energy. In HIFU, measuring the temperature at the treatment site is important for therapeutic efficacy, safety, appropriate treatment planning. In this paper, we propose a novel integrated real-time photoacoustic thermometry system for HIFU treatment monitoring that provides real-time photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging and photoacoustic thermometry without any interference from the HIFU waves. We have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of photoacoustic thermometry with in vitro phantoms and in vivo tumor-bearing mice, which promises a safe and effective monitoring of HIFU treatment.