High-Quality Immunohistochemical Stains through Computational Assay Parameter Optimization
Immunohistochemistry has been an invaluable analytical method in the field of cancer diagnosis. Optimization of assay parameters governing the quality of immunostaining requires of exhaustive exploration of the parameter space, but such optimization is infeasible due to the limited availability of tissue samples. Thus, suboptimal images are being used for diagnoses. This work analyzes immunohistochemistry staining quality through staining quality indicators and proposes an innovative local staining method using the microfluidic probe technology. Consequently, the tissue is processed with parameters that result in improved signal-to-background stains. This methodology will contribute to standardize immunostaining across diagnostic laboratories and to reduce errors in diagnosis.
A Review of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound for Therapeutic Applications
Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a type of ultrasound that delivers at a low intensity and outputs in the mode of pulsed waves. It has minimal thermal effects while maintaining the transmission of acoustic energy to the target tissue, which can provide non-invasive physical stimulation for therapeutic applications. LIPUS has been demonstrated to accelerate the healing of fresh fracture, nonunion and delayed union in both animal and clinical studies. The effectiveness of LIPUS for the applications of soft-tissue regeneration and inhibiting inflammatory responses has also been investigated experimentally. Additionally, research has shown that LIPUS is a promising modality for neuromodulation.
A Coaxial RF Applicator for Ultra-High Field Human MRI
In our work we propose a novel radio-frequency concept for ultra-high field human magnetic resonance imaging – two-channel slotted coaxial cavity RF applicator – volume coil, that doesn’t need lumped elements for tuning. Physical dimensions made the proposed conducting structure resonant at the required frequency without tuning lumped elements. The design was relatively simple, robust and required only a few additional reactive elements for the applicator’s input impedance matching. The transmit efficiency and homogeneity of the excitation field were only 20% and 4% lower compared to a conventional 8-channel head array.
A Framework for Measuring the Time-Varying Shape and Full-Field Deformation of Residual Limbs Using 3D Digital Image Correlation
Effective prosthetic socket design following lower-limb amputation requires accurate characterization of the residuum dynamic shape. We propose a novel framework for measuring residuum shape and deformation using a high-resolution low-cost multi-camera system. The system captures simultaneous images of the residuum, which are analyzed using a custom open-source three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) toolbox. Measurements obtained during knee flexions, muscle contractions, and swelling upon socket removal, quantified the time-varying residuum shapes, strain fields, volumes, and cross-sectional areas. These data may be used to inform computational design algorithms of prosthetic sockets and other wearable technologies mechanically interfacing with the skin.
Robotic Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Biopsy
We present a robot-assisted approach for transrectal ultrasound guided prostate biopsy. A robotic hands-free probe manipulator and a software for image guidance are presented. Methods to minimize the deformation of the prostate were developed to reduce targeting errors. Preclinical tests showed that targeting can be accomplished with accuracy on the order of 1mm with submillimetric prostate deformations. An IRB-approved clinical trial on five patients was successful with an average procedure time of 13min and millimeter targeting accuracy. Robot-assisted prostate biopsy is safe and feasible. Hands-free, skill independent, accurate needle targeting has the potential to increase the detection of clinically significant prostate cancer.
Fluidic bypass structures for improving the robustness of liquid scanning probes
Upon analyzing failure modes and their causes in the operation of liquid scanning probes, two main modes were identified. These failure modes can be countered by a simple design element, a microfluidic bypass channel, which is straightforward to implement in most liquid scanning probe. The bypass can be operated in dc mode when filled with liquid or in ac mode when filled with gas. Each mode allows to prevent one of the two main failure modes. Presented analytical models, engineering design considerations and experimental verification enable a swift adaption of these bypass channels approach to increase operational robustness of liquid scanning probes.