In vivo Visualization of Brain Vasculature in Alzheimer’s Disease Model Mice through High-Resolution Ultrasound Blood Flow Mapping
Real-Time Photoacoustic Thermometry Combined with Clinical Ultrasound Imaging and High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound
Description: High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) is a non-invasive method for treating diseased tissues by locally delivering thermal and mechanical energy. In HIFU, measuring the temperature at the treatment site is important for therapeutic efficacy, safety, appropriate treatment planning. In this paper, we propose a novel integrated real-time photoacoustic thermometry system for HIFU treatment monitoring that provides real-time photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging and photoacoustic thermometry without any interference from the HIFU waves. We have successfully demonstrated the feasibility of photoacoustic thermometry with in vitro phantoms and in vivo tumor-bearing mice, which promises a safe and effective monitoring of HIFU treatment.
4-D Flow MRI-Based Computational Analysis of Blood Flow in Patient-Specific Aortic Dissection
This study presents a comprehensive computational methodology for the evaluation of hemodynamics in type B aortic dissection. It is based on fully patient-specific boundary conditions obtained from imaging, including computed tomography (CT) images and 4D flow magnetic resonance imaging, and pressure measurement. The paper describes in detail the developed workflow and its validation against pressure and flow measurements acquired in vivo. Having demonstrated a good overall agreement with in vivo data, the model was used to evaluate aortic flow after thoracic endovascular repair (TAVER), showing its potential in predicting post-TEVAR hemodynamics using boundary conditions derived from data acquired before TEVAR.
A Hybrid Robotic System for Arm Training of Stroke Survivors: Concept and First Evaluation
Description: This work describes a hybrid robotic system for arm recovery after stroke developed within the European project RETRAINER. The RETRAINER system combines EMG-triggered Functional Electrical Stimulation with a passive exoskeleton for upper limb suspension. A first validation on 7 post-acute stroke survivors is provided. All patients showed improved motor functions after the training program and were able to perform the exercises faster, smoother and with a wider range of motion. Overall, RETRAINER is usable, highly customizable, allows to monitor the daily performance and requires low supervision of the therapist, thus becoming an interesting option for arm recovery after stroke.
A Minimally Invasive Hollow Microneedle with a Cladding Structure: Ultra-Thin but Strong, Batch Manufacturable
Description: With the development of micromachining technology, microneedles have been developed by academic laboratories and pharmaceutical companies as a kind of prospective miniaturized analytical or therapeutic components. Microneedles are generally utilized to enhance transdermal delivery of drug molecules, which is a promising choice for patients because this method is minimally invasive and prevents excite pain-sensitive nerves.
Catheter Treatment of Ventricular Tachycardia: A Reference-Less Pace-Mapping Method to Identify Ablation Targets
Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is a life-threatening arrhythmia. In patients with myocardial infarction, it is caused by a reentrant circuit, formed by conduction blocks and a slow conducting zone within the infarcted area. Catheter interventions consist of identifying those circuits and breaking them by radiofrequency ablation. Here a novel method is presented for identification of ablation targets. It consists of pacing the heart from various sites of the ventricle. As the catheter is moved, changes of the activation wavefront can be detected by analysis of surface electrocardiograms. Areas of abrupt changes thereby correspond to critical zones likely to sustain VT circuits.
Implantable Multi-modality Probe for Subdural Simultaneous Measurement of Electrophysiology, Hemodynamics, and Temperature Distribution
Multi-channel multi-modality measurement capabilities of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), electrocorticography (ECoG), and temperature distribution were integrated into a single, flexible device compact enough for subdural implantation. Photoelectric bare chips for NIRS channels, miniature temperature-coefficient thermistors for measuring localized temperature variation, and 3-mm-diameter platinum plates for ECoG recording were assembled on a flexible printed circuit to create six channels for each modality. A conformal coating of Parylene-C was applied to make the probe surface biocompatible. The simultaneous measurement capability of the developed probe was examined, with IRB approval, in subjects during surgery and post-operative monitoring with no complications throughout the two-week implantation.