Featured Articles

  • Catheter Treatment of Ventricular Tachycardia: A Reference-Less Pace-Mapping Method to Identify Ablation Targets

    Catheter Treatment of Ventricular Tachycardia: A Reference-Less Pace-Mapping Method to Identify Ablation Targets

    Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is a life-threatening arrhythmia. In patients with myocardial infarction, it is caused by a reentrant circuit, formed by conduction blocks and a slow conducting zone within the infarcted area. Catheter interventions consist of identifying those circuits and breaking them by radiofrequency ablation. Here a novel method is presented for identification of ablation targets. It consists of pacing the heart from various sites of the ventricle. As the catheter is moved, changes of the activation wavefront can be detected by analysis of surface electrocardiograms. Areas of abrupt changes thereby correspond to critical zones likely to sustain VT circuits.

  • Implantable Multi-modality Probe for Subdural Simultaneous Measurement of Electrophysiology, Hemodynamics, and Temperature Distribution

    Multi-channel multi-modality measurement capabilities of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), electrocorticography (ECoG), and temperature distribution were integrated into a single, flexible device compact enough for subdural implantation. Photoelectric bare chips for NIRS channels, miniature temperature-coefficient thermistors for measuring localized temperature variation, and 3-mm-diameter platinum plates for ECoG recording were assembled on a flexible printed circuit to create six channels for each modality. A conformal coating of Parylene-C was applied to make the probe surface biocompatible. The simultaneous measurement capability of the developed probe was examined, with IRB approval, in subjects during surgery and post-operative monitoring with no complications throughout the two-week implantation.

  • FeetBeat: A Flexible Iontronic Sensing Wearable Detects Pedal Pulses and Muscular Activities

    FeetBeat: A Flexible Iontronic Sensing Wearable Detects Pedal Pulses and Muscular Activities

    The world-first pedal wearable system, named FeetBeat, has been presented to acquire both vital signals and muscular activities. This system has been seamlessly integrated into a shoe format by constructing a sensitive and flexible pressure sensing array enabled by the iontronic sensing principle. It can capture high-definition peripheral arterial pulse waveforms, from which heart rates and respiratory patterns can be extracted within a medical-standard precision. Meanwhile, the high spatial resolution of the sensing array not only allows alignment-free tracking of pulse signals, while serving as a location reference to identify individual pedal tendon activities, from which various foot gestures can be distinguished.

  • A Palm-Sized Cryoprobe System with a Built-in Thermocouple and Its Application in an Animal Model of Epilepsy

    A Palm-Sized Cryoprobe System with a Built-in Thermocouple and Its Application in an Animal Model of Epilepsy

    The purpose of this study is to propose a palm-sized cryoprobe system with a built-in thermocouple for highly accurate temperature measurements at the probe-tip wall. The conventional and general configuration of cryoprobe systems uses triple coaxial tubes. Moreover, in order to measure the temperature shift at the probe tip, a wired thermocouple is attached externally using adhesive. However, because the adhesive creates thermal resistance between the wired thermocouple and the external surface of the probe tip, the temperature measurement accuracy deteriorates. To cope with this problem, in this paper, we propose a cryoprobe system with a built-in thermocouple.

  • Improving Performance of Devanagari Script Input-Based P300 Speller Using Deep Learning

    Improving Performance of Devanagari Script Input-Based P300 Speller Using Deep Learning

    Highlights: Classification of P300 using two deep learning algorithms i.e. deep convolution neural network (DCNN) and stacked autoencoder (SAE), customized and fine-tuned for Devanagari Script (DS) based P300 speller; A novel double batch training approach to handle the computational burden; A leaky ReLU activation function is used in DCNN to overcome dying ReLU problem; Improvement in the performance of DS based P300 speller for reduced number of trials; Reduced the time to spell the character from 16 sec to 9.6 sec; Achieved classification accuracy of 88.22% just in three trials.

  • High-Quality Immunohistochemical Stains through Computational Assay Parameter Optimization

    High-Quality Immunohistochemical Stains through Computational Assay Parameter Optimization

    Immunohistochemistry has been an invaluable analytical method in the field of cancer diagnosis. Optimization of assay parameters governing the quality of immunostaining requires of exhaustive exploration of the parameter space, but such optimization is infeasible due to the limited availability of tissue samples. Thus, suboptimal images are being used for diagnoses. This work analyzes immunohistochemistry staining quality through staining quality indicators and proposes an innovative local staining method using the microfluidic probe technology. Consequently, the tissue is processed with parameters that result in improved signal-to-background stains. This methodology will contribute to standardize immunostaining across diagnostic laboratories and to reduce errors in diagnosis.

  • A Review of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound for Therapeutic Applications

    A Review of Low-Intensity Pulsed Ultrasound for Therapeutic Applications

    Low-intensity pulsed ultrasound (LIPUS) is a type of ultrasound that delivers at a low intensity and outputs in the mode of pulsed waves. It has minimal thermal effects while maintaining the transmission of acoustic energy to the target tissue, which can provide non-invasive physical stimulation for therapeutic applications. LIPUS has been demonstrated to accelerate the healing of fresh fracture, nonunion and delayed union in both animal and clinical studies. The effectiveness of LIPUS for the applications of soft-tissue regeneration and inhibiting inflammatory responses has also been investigated experimentally. Additionally, research has shown that LIPUS is a promising modality for neuromodulation.

  • A Coaxial RF Applicator for Ultra-High Field Human MRI

    A Coaxial RF Applicator for Ultra-High Field Human MRI

    In our work we propose a novel radio-frequency concept for ultra-high field human magnetic resonance imaging – two-channel slotted coaxial cavity RF applicator – volume coil, that doesn’t need lumped elements for tuning. Physical dimensions made the proposed conducting structure resonant at the required frequency without tuning lumped elements. The design was relatively simple, robust and required only a few additional reactive elements for the applicator’s input impedance matching. The transmit efficiency and homogeneity of the excitation field were only 20% and 4% lower compared to a conventional 8-channel head array.

  • Wrap-Around Wearable Coils for Seamless Monitoring of Joint Flexion

    Wrap-Around Wearable Coils for Seamless Monitoring of Joint Flexion

    Monitoring human motion outside lab environments can revolutionize various sectors ranging from healthcare to virtual reality and from sports to biomedical research. Unfortunately, state-of-the-art approaches suffer from limitations which do not allow seamless, real-time and reliable motion monitoring in real-world settings. The idea presented in this article overcomes such drawbacks by using wirelessly coupled wrap-around coils that are seamlessly integrated in clothes. This idea envisions to redefine the way joint flexion is monitored at present and promises transformative opportunities for rehabilitation, sports, gestural interaction, and beyond.

  • A Framework for Measuring the Time-Varying Shape and Full-Field Deformation of Residual Limbs Using 3D Digital Image Correlation

    A Framework for Measuring the Time-Varying Shape and Full-Field Deformation of Residual Limbs Using 3D Digital Image Correlation

    Effective prosthetic socket design following lower-limb amputation requires accurate characterization of the residuum dynamic shape. We propose a novel framework for measuring residuum shape and deformation using a high-resolution low-cost multi-camera system. The system captures simultaneous images of the residuum, which are analyzed using a custom open-source three-dimensional digital image correlation (3D-DIC) toolbox. Measurements obtained during knee flexions, muscle contractions, and swelling upon socket removal, quantified the time-varying residuum shapes, strain fields, volumes, and cross-sectional areas. These data may be used to inform computational design algorithms of prosthetic sockets and other wearable technologies mechanically interfacing with the skin.

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